Item #

Featured Item Chandelier 00997
with details

French 24-arm
chandelier, c 1900
Baccarat crystal
45" w x 60" h


chandelier 00997

chandelier 00997 detail A


Reference Information on Pieces in Our Collection

Jacques Adnet (1900 - 1984) was a French Modernist designer, originally entered the Municipal School of Design, in Auxerre, France, along with his twin brother Jean, but Jacques transferred to l'École Nationale Supérieure des Arts Décoratifs [also known as Ecole des Arts Décoratifs, Arts Decos', E.N.S.A.D.], Paris, in 1916. After graduation, Jacques learned fine cabinetry while working for architect, and skilled cabinetmaker/furniture designer Antony Selmercheim.

After WWI, the brothers then went into partnership, developing fine furniture and interior displays which they exhibited in various salons; they also offered their creations at Galer1es Lafayette under its "La Maîtrise" aegis, marking their designs J.-J. Adnet. Their work was included in the La Maîtrise pavilion at the seminal 1925 Exposition Internationale des Arts Décoratifs et Industriels Modernes [which gave rise to the term "Art Deco"].

Eventually Jean became the sales manager of Gallerie Lafayette, while Jacques bought a failing furniture design firm, and revitalized it, introducing minimalist designs with little or no ornamentation and often of utilitarian materials such as metal and leather. He collaborated with many other designers to produce some of his works, and did a lot with the still relatively new electric lighting.

Jaques Adnet continued to evolve from a designer working along Art Deco lines that developed into Art Moderne and finally became one of the most significant figures of the French Modernist style.

In the 40s and 50s he worked with the firm of Hermés, designing a line of leather furniture for them. In the 50s he concentrated on many challenging commissions such redesigning the private living areas of the President at the Elysée Palace or UNESCO, Paris, headquarters in Paris, or grand interiors of ocean liners.

He closed his business in 1959 and returned to l'École Nationale Supérieure des Arts Décoratifs as its director, where he remained until 1970.

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Lucien Charles Edouard Alliot (French, 1877-1956) sculptor, studied under Louis Barrías. Jules Coutan and Louis Moreau. Parisian born, he was the son of sculptor and founder Napoleon Alliot and worked in his father's studio. He exhibited small sculptures at the Salons of the Societe des Artistes Francais during the early part of the 20th century. He was known for his Art Nouveau style, and worked primarily in gilt and patinated bronze, pewter and ivory.

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Armor Bronze & Silver Company, from the late 1890s, was formerly known as National Metalizing Company, NYC. They were in business in New York City until the mid 30s when they moved to Taunton MA.

They were well known for galvanized bronze-clad bookends during the early 20th century. However, the process was so labor intensive, time consuming, and expensive that by 1950 they had discontinued this work.

Although the product resembles a bronze casting, the work is done with a complex electroplating process. A metal mold is created to make a plaster cast. The casting is removed from the mold, finished and given a surface-hardening and sealing treatment. Then it is sprayed with an electrical conductant such as graphite and suspended in in a plating solution by a wire cst into the plaster The immersed cast remained in place for up to several days while electric current gradually transferred copper, bronze, or whatever metal was in the tank to the plaster cast. This process is finally followed by surface finishing.

One can identify old bronze-clad bookends by a depression on the underside of the base showing where the wire was removed.

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Although it was not known as "Art Deco" originally, the style emerged in Paris in the 1920s, and flourished worldwide throughout the 30s.

Art Deco, was both a departure from the flowing asymmetrical organic curves of its predecessor, Art Nouveau, and an evolution. Although the flowing lines were replaced by linear symetry and the use of geometrical forms, motifs of flora and fauna continued. Like Art Nouveau, Art Deco drew from William Morris and the Arts and Crafts movement in England

However new influences were added including the new art movements constructivism, Cubism, Modernism and Futurism. Many new techniques with and new uses of materials began to appear during this time, most notably in glassworks.

Art Deco, originally called Art Moderne, and referred to as Jazz Pattern and Skyscraper Modern, did not receive its current name until a 1966 Paris retrospective exhibit "Les Années 25" of the seminal 1925 Exposition Internationale des Arts Décoratifs et Industriels Modernes (International Exhibition of Modern Decorative and Industrial Arts).

In current use, the the term "Art Moderne" refers to the latter end of the Art Deco movement, late 30s through early 40s, when all figural and floral imagery disappears and the forms are greatly simplified to streamlined lines and curves.

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Although originally used to refer to the entire Art Deco style, the term Art Moderne later became a description of the tail end of the Art Deco style [late 30s-early 40s].

This evolution, heavily influenced by the streamlining of modern industrial designers such as Raymond Loewy, stripped Art Deco design of its fauna and flora in favor of an aerodynamic curvilinear concept suggestive of motion and speed. Design of even such humble household items as toasters contributed to the new style. The strong bold verticals of the new skyscrapers also influenced the Art Moderne.

All floral and figural ornamentation, however geometricized, disappeared to be replaced by flowing lins, symmetrical curves and geometrical shapes that suggested speed, power, height.

The early work of George Nakashima and Wharton Esherick in the United States, crafters of sculptural wood furniture, is regarded as Art Moderne.

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"The Art Nouveau style appeared in the early 1880s and was gone by the eve of the First World War."
--V&A Curator Paul Greenhalgh, who organized 2000 Art Nouveau retrospective, shown at Victoria & Albert Museum and at the national Gallery, Washington DC

Although the term was first used in Brussels in 1884 for for a Belgian artists' group called "Les XX," it did not come into more popular use until the 1895 opening in Paris by Seigfried Bing of the shop "la Maison de l'Art Nouveau."

Bing's shop handled the work of Louis Comfort Tiffany, one of the earliest American contributors to the style, the glass of Emile Galle, the jewellery of Rene Lalique, and the furniture of Eugene Gaillard and George DeFeure, as well such foreign exhibitions as Japanese prints, which influenced artists and craftsmen working in the style..

Art Nouveau artists and designers reacted to the mid-to-late 19th century Victorian aesthetic 1that they found excessively ornamented, fussy, and inhibited. Art Nouveau aimed at modernizing design, seeking to escape the eclectic historical styles that had heretofore been popular.

The movement evolved out of the Arts & Crafts Movement in England, became Art Nouveau in France, Jugendstil in Germany and other names in other countries. And despite regional differences, was very similar.

Artists drew inspiration from both organic and geometric forms, evolving elegant designs that united flowing, natural forms with more angular contours. Typical motifs come from nature: flowers, insects birds. Lines that curve and wind ---- and the feminine form. A favourite art nouveau theme was a nymph with flowers in her abundant streaming hair. She appeared on the posters of Alfons Mucha and among the opals and moonstones of René Lalique's jewelry, and in 19th century french bronzed spelter figures.

Influenced by the English Arts and Crafts movement, and William Morris's credo of the artistic integrity of the craftsman, Art Nouveau is similarly a response to the radical social and economic changes caused by rapid urban growth and technological advances following the Industrial Revolution. And glutting the marketplace with a multitude of tawdry mass-produced goods.

The movement was committed to abolishing the traditional hierarchy of the arts, which viewed so-called liberal arts, such as painting and sculpture, as superior to craft-based decorative arts, and ultimately it had far more influence on the latter.

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The Aesthetic movement in Britain which gave rise to both the PreTaphaelite artists and the Arts and Crafts Movement arose in the mid-19th century as a reaction to stuffy, repressive, over-formularized Victorian "Revival" movements and to the crassness of the new industrial age. Art critic John Ruskin first put into words some of the concepts that influenced and responded to these evolutions in art.

Not only did the Arts and Crafts movement value fine hand craftsmanship butemphasized that the value of the artist craftsman, maker of decorative items and furnishings, should be elevated to the same plane formerly reserved exclusively for the "fine arts."

In 1861, English designer William Morris established his career as a designer with the interior design of the Red House. and opened his own design house, particularly known for wallpaper designs and stained glass. Morris's devotion to handmade articles was a reaction against shoddy machine-made products that were flooding the English marketplace as the industrial revolution expanded. Rhe arts and crafts movement emphasized the importance of handcrafted work, and promoted a totally designed environment in which everything from wallpaper to silverware is made according to a unified design.

The Arts and Crafts movement took sources from medieval art, [in a very different way than the concurrent Victorian Gothic Revival style] as did its Aesthetic Movement counterpart, but it adapted newly discovered arts of Japan and elsewhere as well.

The Arts and Crafts movement spread into the United States in the latter part of the 19th century, popularized in part by Oscar Wilde's 1882 tour and continued to evolve. Gustav Stickley, in particular, both with his Mission Style furniture, produced at his Craftsman Workshops, founded 1904, and with his periodical "The Craftsman", founded in 1901, continued to work in and support the ideals of William Morris.

Much of Britain's Arts and Crafts evolved into the then-new Art Nouveau style. British art nouveau designers of the 1890s shared Morris's dedication to handcrafted work and integrated designs. To these principles they added new forms and materials, establishing the aesthetic of the Art Nouveau style.

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Baccarat crystal began in 1764 when King Louis XV of France granted permission to found a glassworks in the town of Baccarat in eastern France to Prince Bishop Cardinal Louis-Joseph de Laval-Montmorency. First products were utilitarian glass objects, (window panes, stemware, etc.).

In 1816 the first crystal oven went into operation. By the early 1820s Baccarat began receiving commissions from royalty, nobility and and high ranking officials throughout the world.

Baccarat built a worldwide reputation for its fine crystal chandeliers, barware and stemware, and perfume bottles during the 19th century.

Baccarat continues to produce fine crystal, expanding into collectibles and jewelry, and has introduced color into some of its product lines.

A 1964 retrospective exhibition at the Louvre Museum, celebrates Baccarat's 200th anniversary.

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A bouillotte lamp is a small tole-painted table lamp with two lights and a shade on a rod that can be lowered to adjust the lighting. The name comes from an eighteenth-century French card came that was often played by the light of a similar lamp with candles in place of electric lights. The lowering mechanism was necessary then to shield the candle flame from the players' eyes as the candles burned lower.

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Bradley & Hubbard began life in 1852 in Meriden CT as a metalworking company. They made clocks. With expanding markets during and after the Civil War they expanded their line of products, including manufacture of kerosene-burning lamps, securing 33 patents for design of oil burning lamps along the way.

Bradley and Hubbard became known for high quality and artistic merit. Some of their designs were seen as cutting edge in their time as noted by this review in the 1897 Crockery and Glass Journal, "Bradley & Hubbard sent down the last installment of their new goods this week, and now the line in the New York store is complete. This new line is a queer lot of odd shapes, novel in the extreme, and their very oddity will make them take. This new line is a queer lot of odd shapes, novel in the extreme, and their very oddity will make them take. They are all table lamps, some with feet and some without. They are in colors and in antique finishes, and are worth seeing."

After 30 years of business and the death of one of its founders it was sold to the Charles Parker Company, also of Meriden, and also a manufacturer of primarily metal household goods, in 1940. WWII redirected Parker's energies from developing its new B & H line, and the factury languished, abandoned, until it was dramatically destroyed by fire in 1976.

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Charles VII, king of Naples and Sicily, son of Philip V, king of Spain, married Maria Amelia, daughter of the king of Saxony. After his marriage to Maria Amelia he became interested in creating a fine porcelain factory to rival that of the factory in Saxony, and even that of China.

He searched his domain and finally located, near the town of Fuscaldo, significant deposits of kaolin clay, similar to that used by the Chinese. After much research throughout Italy to find a suitable substance to produce porcelain equal in quality to Chinese porcelain, deposits of kaolin, similar to that used by the Chinese, were discovered at Fuscaldo and Paola in the Province of Catanzaro.

His factory was set up in the royal wood of Capodimonte, near Naples and began porcelain manufactury. But it was really his son Ferdinand IV King of Naples who, with his director of the Royal factory, Domenico Venuti, brought Capodimonte world fame. The Royal factory produced porcelain for European royalty and nobility.

The Napoleanic War ended the the royal connection. The French took control and sold the business to Giovanni Poulard-Prad. The business floundered under Poulard and he sold the factory buildings and tools to three different purchasers. In 1834 the Ginora family of Florence bought what was left of the main factory, revitalized it and continued to use its crown and "N' logo. A few other manufacturers, revitalizing other former Royal Factory holdings also used the logo. However, Ginori factory, later merged with the Societa Ceramica Richard of Milan which continues today create fine Capo-di-Monte porcelain. This manufactury has a logo of a crest and wreaths under a blue crown with R Capodimonte.

The high-relief, richly colored style continues to define Capodimonte porcelain, now known as Capo-di-Monte. Most post-Royal factory Capodimonte pieces are marked with a blue N under a crown, or the crest and wreaths under a blue crown with R Capodimonte. Some also have factory marks.

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Louis Albert Carvin, (1875-1951), sculptor of animals and figures, was born in Paris. His father was a painter and a draftsman at the Ministry of War.

Louis-Albert studied at the Ecole des Beaux Arts in Paris under Emmanuel Fremiet and Georges Garder. He was a member of the Society of French Arists and exhibited regularly in their salons.

One notable commission was "The Muse of Aviation" a bronze trophy presented to the Wright brothers by the French Aero Club de la Sarthe. A 1934 animal sculpture "Borzoi" is in Clamart Square, Paris.

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Felix Charpentier was born in Bollène, France, in 1858, and began sculpting in wood and modeling in clay before he was 10. In 1877 Charpentier entered the art college of Paris, studying under Pierre Cavelier and Amédée Doublemard. He sent his first works to the French Artists' Exhibition in 1879. His work centered on the nude figure. He was successful early on with first with "The Rest of The Harvester" 1882 and next with "The Improviser" (1884, marble) The Improviser, this time in bronze, won a silver medal at the Paris World's Fair of 1889. Other prize-winning works include "The Wrestlers" and "The Sleepy Globe." He had numerous civic commissions such as "The Departure of the Swallows" for the city of Avignon.

The bronze sculpture “i'Improvateur” has been cast in many sizes, although the original was life size. An original full-size bronze stands on the promenade at Bandol in southern France along the seafront, close to the restaurant l'Admiral. Unlike later versions, this statue is nude. The statue has been nicknamed “The Golden Dick” because tradition has it that passersby touch the penis for good luck. And thus the member is highly polished.

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Cinnabar is a highly toxic red mineral consisting of native mercuric sulfide HgS that is the only important ore of mercury. The word cinnabar is thought to be of Persian origin but origins are unclear although "red lead" is a possibility..

Note; Not to be confused with cinnabar, sometimes referred to as "dragon's blood."a red plant resin used since ancient times as varnish, medicine, incense, and dye.

Cinnabar has been mined all over the world for more than 2,500 years, particularly by the Roman Empire who sought its mercury content. mined by the Roman Empire for its mercury content and it has been the main ore of mercury throughout the centuries. Almaden, Spain, has been the world's most important deposit.

The most popularly known use of cinnabar is in Chinese carved lacquerware, a technique that may have originated in the Song Dynasty [960–1279 AD]. The danger of mercury poisoning was reduced in ancient lacquerware by suspending the cinnabar particles in the lacquer.

Some sources cite an eighth- to ninth-century Arab alchemist, Geber (Jabir), who claims the Chinese developed a cinnabar pigment much earlier than the beginning of the Song Dynasty..

Despite its toxicity, cinnabar has historically been used in traditional Chinese medicine and was highly valued in Chinese Alchemy where ir contributed to the elixir of immortality.

Modern "cinnabar" is often a resin-based polymer that approximates the appearance of the toxic pigmented lacquer.

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